Some participants could fit in more than one category.
• Napoleone Ferrara (Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences and Lasker Award; discoverer of VEGF; contributor to the development of Avastin).
• Erkki Ruoslahti (Lasker Award; co-discoverer of integrins).
• Robert Langer (Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences; the most cited bioengineer in history for work on tissue engineering and drug delivery; one of the founders of Moderna).
• Evan Snyder (one of the pioneers of the study of neural stem cells and of the field of regenerative medicine; research includes organoid models).
Science Policy and Philanthropy
• Renato Dulbecco (Nobel Prize in Medicine and Lasker Award; commented on openness and innovation in biology).
• Mike Milken (Philanthropist; Giving Pledge signatory; commented on financial innovations, including incentive strategies to achieve social goals).
• Robert (Bob) Conn (Dean, Emeritus, Jacobs School of Engineering, UCSD; President, Emeritus, The Kavli Foundation; Co-Founder, Science Philanthropy Alliance; commented on scientific collaborations and philanthropy).
AI and computation
• ChatGPT (AI system; commented on biomedical topics and on incentives, suggesting AI can complement human scientists).